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Среда, 24 Октября 2018 г. 09:27 + в цитатник
The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an out of date term for the Swiss, which was being used amid the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.[17] The English descriptor Swiss is an advance from French Suisse, additionally being used since the sixteenth century. The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in root an occupant of Schwyz and its related domain, one of the Waldstätten cantons which framed the core of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss started to receive the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, utilized close by the term for "Confederates", Eidgenossen (truly: friends by vow), utilized since the fourteenth century. The information code for Switzerland, CH, is gotten from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica (English: Helvetic Confederation). 
 
The toponym Schwyz itself was first bore witness to in 972, as Old High German Suittes, eventually maybe identified with swedan 'to consume' (cf. Old Norse svíða 'to scorch, consume'), alluding to the region of timberland that was singed and demonstrated to build.[18] The innocence was stretched out to the territory ruled by the canton, and after the Swabian War of 1499 bit by bit came to be utilized for the whole Confederation.[19][20] The Swiss German name of the nation, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, however recognized by the utilization of the positive article (d'Schwiiz for the Confederation,[21] yet basically Schwyz for the canton and the town).[22] 
 
The Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and presented bit by bit after the arrangement of the government state in 1848, beholding back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, showing up on coins from 1879, recorded on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 utilized in the authority seal.[23] (for instance, the ISO saving money code "CHF" for the Swiss franc, and the nation top-level area ".ch", are both taken from the state's Latin name). Helvetica is gotten from the Helvetii, a Gaulish clan living on the Swiss level before the Roman period. 
 
Helvetia shows up as a national representation of the Swiss alliance in the seventeenth century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach 
 
The most established hints of primate presence in Switzerland go back around 150,000 years.[25] The most seasoned known cultivating settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC.[25] 
 
Established in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica was the main Roman settlement on the Rhine and is currently among the most imperative archeological destinations in Switzerland.[26] 
 
The soonest known social clans of the territory were individuals from the Hallstatt and La Tène societies, named after the archeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture created and thrived amid the late Iron Age from around 450 BC,[25] potentially under some impact from the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. A standout amongst the most essential ancestral gatherings in the Swiss area was the Helvetii. Consistently badgering by the Germanic clans, in 58 BC the Helvetii chose to relinquish the Swiss level and relocate to western Gallia, however Julius Caesar's armed forces sought after and crushed them at the Battle of Bibracte, in the present eastern France, compelling the clan to move back to its unique homeland.[25] In 15 BC, Tiberius, who was bound to be the second Roman head and his sibling, Drusus, vanquished the Alps, coordinating them into the Roman Empire. The territory involved by the Helvetii—the namesakes of the later Confoederatio Helvetica—first turned out to be a piece of Rome's Gallia Belgica region and afterward of its Germania Superior region, while the eastern segment of present day Switzerland was coordinated into the Roman region of Raetia. At some point around the beginning of the Common Era, the Romans kept up a vast legionary camp called Vindonissa, now a destroy at the juncture of the Aare and Reuss streams, close to the town of Windisch, an edge of Brugg. 
 
The first and second century AD was a period of flourishing for the populace living on the Swiss level. A few towns, as Aventicum, Iulia Equestris and Augusta Raurica, achieved an amazing size, while several farming domains (Villae rusticae) were established in the wide open. 
 
Around 260 AD, the fall of the Agri Decumates an area north of the Rhine changed the present Switzerland into a wilderness place that is known for the Empire. Rehashed assaults by the Alamanni clans incited the demolish of the Roman towns and economy, constraining the populace to discover protect close Roman strongholds, similar to the Castrum Rauracense close Augusta Raurica. The Empire constructed a different line of protection at the north fringe (the purported Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limes), yet toward the finish of the fourth century the expanded Germanic weight constrained the Romans to relinquish the direct safeguard idea, and the Swiss level was at long last open to the settlement of Germanic clans. 
 
In the Early Middle Ages, from the finish of the fourth century, the western degree of cutting edge Switzerland was a piece of the domain of the Kings of the Burgundians. The Alemanni settled the Swiss level in the fifth century and the valleys of the Alps in the eighth century, shaping Alemannia. Cutting edge Switzerland was hence at that point separated between the kingdoms of Alemannia and Burgundy.[25] The whole locale turned out to be a piece of the extending Frankish Empire in the sixth century, following Clovis I's triumph over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504 AD, and later Frankish control of the Burgundians.[27][28] 
 
All through whatever is left of the sixth, seventh and eighth hundreds of years the Swiss areas proceeded under Frankish authority (Merovingian and Carolingian administrations). In any case, after its expansion under Charlemagne, the Frankish Empire was partitioned by the Treaty of Verdun in 843.[25] The regions of present-day Switzerland wound up separated into Middle Francia and East Francia until the point that they were reunified under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD.[25] 
 
By 1200, the Swiss level included the domains of the places of Savoy, Zähringer, Habsburg, and Kyburg.[25] Some areas (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, later known as Waldstätten) were concurred the Imperial quickness to give the realm coordinate power over the mountain passes. With the elimination of its male line in 1263 the Kyburg tradition fell in AD 1264; at that point the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I (Holy Roman Emperor in 1273) made a case for the Kyburg lands and attached them stretching out their region toward the eastern Swiss level.

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Среда, 24 Октября 2018 г. 09:24 + в цитатник
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