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Создан: 19.09.2019
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Talc Products and Ovarian Cancer

Четверг, 19 Сентября 2019 г. 16:39 + в цитатник

There are currently talcum powder issues where women, with a history of usage of talc products; Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower Body Powder on their genitals, were found to have ovarian cancer. Scientific studies and the World Health Organization have identified an association between long term genital use of talcum powder and cancer . In June 2013, Cancer Prevention Research shared a study which determined females that have a history of using talc containing powder on their genital region have a 20 to 30 percent increased risk of contracting ovarian cancer. Presented with scientific studies, expert testimony, and factual evidence, a jury in St. Louis determined that Johnson & Johnson failed to warn people about the risk of ovarian cancer connected with the genital area use of its talc-based powders. Company documents disclosed during the trial show that Johnson & Johnson was aware of the research and tried to discredit them. The jury awarded $72 million in damages to the family of a woman who succumbed to ovarian cancer and had a history of using Johnson’s® Baby Powder and Shower to Shower Body Powder.

The Link Between Talcum Powder & Ovarian Cancer
The earliest scientific paper to outline a possible connection between talc and ovarian cancer was reported in 1971. Chronicled were pathology observations of tissue samples from ten women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The scientists noticed talc in every one of the tissue samples, an indication that each woman’s talc containing powder had migrated from her external genitalia to her internal organs. 11 years later, an epidemiological study performed by Dr. Cramer of Boston’s Brigham & Women’s Hospital showed a statistical connection between a history of genital talc containing product use and ovarian cancer.

Results of the research show an increase in risk of ovarian cancer. An article about Dr. Cramer’s research was published in the August 12, 1982 issue of The New York Times. The research examined the wellness history and genital talc usage of 215 women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and measured them to women who didn’t use talc. The results showed an association between the genital use of talc and ovarian cancer. Across the continuing years, no fewer than 15 studies have shown that long-term, regular, genital use of talc-containing products by women created a 33% increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Though some studies have implied no link between the usage of baby powder and ovarian cancer, these studies have been discredited for not taking into account the duration and frequency of talc use which is the only proper measurement of a woman’s exposure to talc.

Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer
During the formal discovery portion of recent litigation involving Johnson & Johnson, documents have come to light that expose company worries about asbestos contaminated talc dating back several decades and that the company conducted an intense effort to degrade data, scientific papers and other information that talc in its Baby Powder® contained asbestos. The fact that Johnson & Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder, in addition to other brands of talc containing products might have been contaminated with asbestos, has focused most of the nationwide litigation. Though most asbestos lawsuits and claims focus on work, military and industrial-related risk to asbestos, and asbestos containing products as causing mesothelioma, the growing recent litigation is now focusing on the link between asbestos, talc and ovarian cancer.

Focusing on both the factual and scientific links between exposure to asbestos contaminated talc powders and the development of ovarian cancer, the legal effort is evolving and being joined by numerous women who have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

Additional Information About Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer and Its Subtypes
Ovarian cancer is a general phrase that includes various subtypes which are identified and distinguishable by their various characteristics and their location. Most ovarian cancer is located in the epithelium, that is the layer of tissue which surrounds the ovary. Approximately 90% of all ovarian cancers are located in the epithelium. There are various subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers that includes serous cell and endometrioid.

An additional subtype is peritoneal ovarian cancer. A low percent of ovarian cancer issues start in the peritoneum that is bodily tissue which is separate and distinct from the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that surrounds, protects, and helps support the stomach organs including all of the reproductive organs.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
The most common types of ovarian cancer are the epithelial cancers, all of which are found in the epithelium — the layer of tissue that surrounds the ovary. Within this group are the following subtypes:

Serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer
This is the most common subtype of all epithelial ovarian cancer, at approximately sixty percent of newly discovered cases of ovarian cancer. When diagnosed, serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer is commonly classified as either low grade or high grade depending upon the nuclei and mitotic characteristics of the cells.

Endometrioid ovarian cancer
This subtype is identified by its connection to the endometrium, that is the membrane which is the interior lining of the uterus. Endometrioid ovarian cancer could frequently develop in connection with other cancers, diseases, or issues affecting the endometrium such as endometriosis.

Mucinous, Clear Cell, and Unclassified/Undifferentiated
Those 3 are less common subtypes of ovarian cancer. Though distinguishable for testing purposes, the prescribed treatment for each of them is the same.

Peritoneal Ovarian Cancers
Peritoneal ovarian cancer originates outside of the ovaries, in one or more areas of the peritoneum tissue. It can spread to other locations in the abdomen including, in some cases, the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that covers, protects, and helps support the abdominal organs including, for women, the uterus and all of the other female reproductive organs. The peritoneum includes epithelial cells and, in this way, is similar to the epithelium tissue that surrounds the ovaries. Due to this, treatment of epithelial and peritoneal cancers is often similar. However, peritoneal cancer could be confined to the peritoneum and not affect the ovaries. It may develop in women who have had their ovaries removed. Primary peritoneal cancer may occur in any location in the peritoneum and not include the ovaries.

Peritoneal ovarian cancer generally means that cancer cells are present in each of the peritoneum and one or both ovaries. The serous cell lining of the ovaries and the serous cell composition of the peritoneum signal each other and, in this manner, cancer cells can migrate, through shedding or other processes, between the two. When cancer cells appear in both of the ovaries and the peritoneum, the diagnosis is peritoneal ovarian cancer.

Staging of Ovarian Cancers
Once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, peritoneal, it is then staged to understand its severity and potential treatment options. A common ovarian cancer staging protocol is as follows:

Stage I — Growth of the cancer is limited to the ovary or ovaries.

Stage IA — Presence is limited to one ovary and the tumor is limited to the interior of the ovary. There is no cancer in the outer surface of the ovary. There are no ascites present containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IB — Presence is confined to both ovaries without any tumor on their outer surfaces. There are no ascites appearing containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IC — The tumor is determined as either Stage IA or IB and one or more of the following appear: tumor is present on the outer surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage II — Presence of the cancer involves one or both ovaries with pelvic extension.

Stage IIA — The cancer has expanded to and includes the uterus or the fallopian tubes, or both.

Stage IIB — The cancer has extended to other pelvic organs.

Stage IIC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IIA or IIB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is appearing on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that include malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage III — Presence of the cancer involves one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following are present: the cancer has extended past the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; and the cancer has expanded to lymph nodes. The tumor is confined to the true pelvis but with histologically proven malignant extension to the small bowel or omentum.

Stage IIIA — During the staging operation, the doctor might see cancer including one or both of the ovaries, yet no cancer is grossly visible in the abdomen and it has not expanded to lymph nodes. Yet, when biopsies are checked on a microscope, very tiny deposits of cancer are found in the abdominal peritoneal areas.

Stage IIIB — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and deposits of cancer are present in the abdomen that are big enough for the surgeon to see but not bigger than 2 cm in diameter. The cancer hasn’t expanded to the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIC — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following is present: the cancer has spread to lymph nodes; and the amounts of cancer are bigger than 2 cm in size and are found in the abdomen.

Stage IV — This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Presence of the cancer includes one or both ovaries and distant metastases have occurred. Discovering ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid is also evidence of stage IV disease.



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