«адание дл€ студентов среднего и продвинутого уровней
I. Please, transcribe the video, save it onto your computer and check it against the master below.
II. Practice out loud with Jennifer, while following the transcript:
1. Start by repeating after Jennifer. Pause the video after each sentence and repeat it right away.
2. After you get quite comfortable repeating sentences in the pauses, for added challenge
a). practice saying the text along with Jeniffer, lagging behind by 2-3 words, and
b). then simultaneously with her.
I. ѕожалуйста, сделайте транскрипт этого видео, сохраните его у себ€ на компьютере и сверьте с транкриптом, помещенным ниже.
II. ѕотренируйтесь вслух с ƒжениффер, одновременно след€ за текстом транскрипта:
1. Ќачните повтор€ть за ƒженифер. ќстанавливайте видео после каждого предложени€ и тут же его повтор€йте.
2. ќсвоив первое упражнение, Уподнимите планкуФ чуть выше:
а). начните повтор€ть текст вместе с ƒжениффер, сначала отстава€ на 2-3 слова, а
б). затем одновременно с ней.
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Pronunciation of УTФ
Part 2. Omission of the consonant sound /T/
Well, as you can see weТve had a very big snowfall here in New England. But thatТs fine by me because I really enjoy a white Christmas. And Christmas is only two days away.
You know, Christmas is one of those words in English that is written with the УtФ but we donТt pronounce it. Now many viewers have asked me about the pronunciation of /t/ in American English. And I hope to make that lesson in the future. But for now, what IТd like to do is explain when the /t/ is NOT pronounced. IТm going to explain four cases in which we donТt say the /t/ usually. And hopefully, this will help you better understand American English when itТs spoken.
Group One. In some words, we always omit, or leave out the /t/.
For example: Christmas Ц ['krɪsməs] . Never say Фchris-t-masФ only Фchris-masУ.
Now here is a list of words in which /t/ sound is left out. Note that this list is not complete. Listen as I say the words: Bustle ['bʌsəl], Christmas ['krɪsməs] , hustle ['hʌsəl], mistletoe ['mɪsəltou], whistle ['wɪsəl], wrestle ['wrɜsəl]. Now, УbustleФ and УhustleФ are similar words and they refer to busy, noisy activity, kind of like a holiday shopping you see in stores. УMistletoeФ is a kind of plant with a white berry; and there is a Christmas tradition that if two people are caught under the mistletoe they have to kiss. ФWhistleФ as you know is a sound. ThatТs me whistling. And ФwrestleФ means to struggle or fight with.
Let me say the words again and you repeat after me: Bustle, Christmas, hustle, mistletoe, whistle, wrestle.
Text One. Listen as I read the text.
I love the hustle and bustle of Christmas. Even while I wrestle with shopping bags, I want to whistle a merry holiday tune. And IТm never too busy to share a sweet kiss under the mistletoe.
Now read the text again. IТll pause after each sentence and I want you to repeat after me.
Group Two. In fast informal speech we sometimes omit the / t/ in the prefix Фinter-У as in УinternationalУ. So, in a careful speech we say ФinternationalФ Ц [ˌɪntə'næʃənəl], but in fast informal speech you may hear Ф in-ernational Ц [ˌɪnə' _ næʃənəl]ФУ.
Here is a list of words that all share the same prefix Ф inter-Ф. IТll first read the word with careful pronunciation. You will hear the pronunciation of /t/. Then IТll repeat the word with fast informal pronunciation. You will not hear the /t/.
Listen carefully and try to repeat: Interactive, intermediate, international, internet.
Text Two. Listen as I read the text. I will not read slowly and carefully. I will be reading fast. So that youТll hear the omission of the consonant sound /t/. The Ts that are underlined are the Ts that are omitted.
English is truly an international language. ItТs easier now than ever to learn English, whether youТre a beginner, intermediate, or advanced student. The internet offers language videos and lots of interactive exercises.
If youТd like to go back, you may use your pause key to pause and repeat after me. But this is a mainly an exercise in listening. IТd like you to understand the spoken English.
Group Three. In fast informal speech we sometimes omit the /t/ in a consonant group at the end of a word. Now, by consonant group I mean three consonant sounds or more. For example, the word ФactsУ. We have three consonant sounds Уc-t-sФ. These are voiceless sounds and we dropped the middle one which happens to be a /t/. Instead of [əkts] we say [ək_s].
Here is a group of five common words in English. They all end with a consonant group that even for a native speakers is difficult to pronounce. ThatТs why in fast speech we leave out the /t/ sound. Listen closely and try to repeat after me: accepts, acts, lifts, rests, tests. In the final two words you need to lengthen the /s/ sound, make it long, so that people could understand the word youТre saying: res-s, tes-s.
Text Three. Listen as I read the text. IТll not be reading at a slow rate. IТll read fast, so that the omission of the Ts sound natural.
Grandpa accepts help from no one. ItТs sad. He lifts heavy things and acts like itТs easy, but the weight tests his strength. He rests when he thinks no one is looking. I keep telling him to let me help. One day maybe heТll listen.
Note that ФlistenФ is one of those words in which we always omit the /t/ sound. Now if youСd like to go back, you can use your pause button to repeat after me. But again, this is another text in which I feel itТs more important to understand rather than repeat.
Group Four. In fast informal speech we sometimes omit the /t/ when the ending of one word and the beginning of another form a consonant group. For example, She kept shopping. Now in careful speech you would hear the /t/: She kept_t_ shopping. But in fast informal speech we dropped the /t/ in that consonant group. The consonant group is Уp-t-shФ Ц She kep_shoppingФ.
Read and then answer the questions. First, IТll state the question. You can repeat after me and then you can state your answer.
Number One. LetТs drop the /t/ in the consonant group Уs-t-jФ:
Ц WhatТs the worst joke youТve heard?
Number Two. WeТre going to drop the /t/ sound in the consonant group Уs-t-pФ:
Ц Which animals make the best pets?
Three. WeТre going to drop the /t/ sound in the consonant group Уs-t-jФ:
Ц WhatТs the worst job in the world?
End of lesson.
Happy Holidays, everyone!
Pronunciation of УTФ
Part 1. The true T and the flap T
From the beginning, itТs been a very bitter winter. Back in December we had a terrible ice storm and many families, mine included, lost electricity. Today is a little warmer than usual. But I know colder temperatures will return. IТll try to stay warm. You do the same.
If you listened closely to my opening talk, I used a lot of words with the T sound. I did that to help you understand that there are different ways we pronounce T in American English. Now in a previous lesson I explained the omission of T. That is when words are written with the letter T, but the T sound is not said.
In this lesson IТd like to talk about two different pronunciations of T:
(1) What I call the УtrueФ T sound as in УtalkФ, УtoФ, УterribleФ.
(2) And what is called a flap T or a tap
In my opening talk you heard me said these words:
- bitter- winter Ц terrible Ц storm Ц today Ц little Ц temperatures Ц return Ц try.
and this phrase:
- a lot of families lost electricity.
The Ts in blue are a flap T, the underlined Ts are a УtrueФ T. By the end of this lesson you should not only be able to hear the two different pronunciations of T, you should also have more confidence knowing when we use these two different sounds and how to make them yourself.
LetТs first talk about a true T sound. A true T sounds like this Ц /T/. You hear this sound in words like:
- talk Ц true Ц stop Ц return.
So the true T occurs:
(1) at the beginning of words (either alone, or with other consonants Ц st, tr, str)
(2) at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
УReturnФ has two syllables. But itТs the second syllable that is stressed. T is at the start of that syllable. So, we say УreТturnФ. Again, the true T is in all four words: talk, true, stop, return.
Now, how am I making this sound? The T sound is what is known in English pronunciation as a stop. A stop (also called Цplosive) is a consonant sound that is made by stopping the airflow. In the case of T, the airflow is stopped by the tip of our tongue and that hard bump behind you upper front teeth. The tip of your tongue touches that hard bump and stops the airflow and then releases it.
These are your teeth. And this is the roof of your mouth. If it helps, IТll try to draw the face, picturing a nose. Okay. HereТs the eyes. Okay. ThatТs you, your nose, your lips, your teeth, and there is that hard bump behind your upper front teeth. Now your tongue looks something like this, OK. So, the tip of your tongue touches the hard bump. The airflow is stopped. It cannot come out until the tip drops down and releases that air. ThatТs why we call the true T a УstopФ.
So I want you to know three things when you make the T sound.
First, you need to stop the airflow. You stop it with the tip of your tongue and that hard bump behind your upper front teeth.
Second, when you release the air there should be a puff of air. Are you making the sound correctly?
If you want to check if you are doing this correctly, take a piece of paper. As you say the T sound, the puff of air should be strong enough to move the paper in front of your lips. Watch. See?
Now let me note one very important point.
The Ф trueФ T makes a puff of air but only when T or TR start a word or a stressed syllable. With ST or STR the true T loses that strong puff of air. So, in the words TWO and TRUE we have the puff of air.
But in STEW and STREW that strong puff of air is absent. Take your hand and place it in front of your lips, say these four words, and youТll feel the difference.
All right. The third thing IТd like you to remember is that the T sound is a quiet sound = unvoiced. ItТs whatТs known as unvoiced consonant. Meaning there is no voice, youТll fell no vibration when you make the T sound. You know, youТre doing it correctly, if you can feel the difference between this /t/ and itТs voiced partner /d/.
/t/ Ц unvoiced stop
/d/ Ц voiced stop
These two consonant sounds are made basically the same way, but /t/ is quiet, itТs unvoiced; and /d/ is voiced. So youТll feel no vibrations when you make the true T sound. And you will feel vibration when you make the /d/ sound. Also, take that piece of paper again and watch the difference. Now, here is the /t/Е Here is the /d/. There is more air released. There is a puff, a strong puff with the /t/. That strong puff is not present with the /d/.
Listen and repeat.
All these words begin with the true T sound:
- table, talk, tap, teach, time, touch, toy, turn, two.
All these words begin with true T followed by an R:
- traffic, train, tree, trend, triangle, trip, trouble, true, try.
All these words begin with ST or STR. So, be careful not to release so strong puff of air:
- stamp, stem, stick, stop, strain, stream, strong, strum.
And Group IV.
We have a true T in the middle of a word at the beginning of a stressed syllable:
Ц attack, between, eternal, Italian, mistake (note: with ST we donТt have a strong puff of air; again Ц mistake), particular, retire, return.
Please note, a true T is used in both primary and secondary stressed syllables. Let me help you understand through these three examples.
Attack is a word with two syllables. Stress is on the second: AtТtack. So /t/, although in the middle of a word, is at the beginning of a stressed syllable. So, we have a true T: attack.
Appetizer and Secretary are longer words. They have both primary and secondary stress. Primary stress is at the beginning of these words but the T still falls on a stress syllable. ItТs a secondary stress. A little weaker but still stressed. ThatТs why itТs still a true T. And we say : appetizer, secretary .
End of Part I. Please go on to the next part of this lesson.