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Создан: 19.09.2019
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Talc Powder and Ovarian Cancer

Четверг, 19 Сентября 2019 г. 17:29 + в цитатник

There are currently talcum powder lawsuits where women, with a history of using talc products; Johnson’s Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder on their genitals, were diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Scientific research and the WHO have identified an association between long term genital usage of talcum powder and cancer . In June 2013, Cancer Prevention Research published a study which determined females with a history of using talc containing powder in their genital areas have a 20 to 30 percent increase in risk of developing ovarian cancer. Presented with scientific studies, expert opinion, and factual evidence, a court in St. Louis found that Johnson & Johnson neglected to warn consumers regarding the risk of ovarian cancer associated to the genital area usage of its talc-based powders. Internal company documents disclosed during the trial indicate that Johnson & Johnson was aware of the research and tried to discredit them. The jury awarded $72 million in damages to the family of a woman who succumbed to ovarian cancer and had a history of using Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder.

The Connection Between Talcum Powder & Ovarian Cancer
The earliest scientific paper to describe a possible link between talc and ovarian cancer appeared in 1971. Chronicled were pathology observations of tissue samples from 10 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The researchers noticed talc in every one of the tissue samples, a sign that each woman’s talc containing powder had migrated from her external genitalia to her internal organs. 11 years later, an study performed by Dr. Daniel Cramer of Boston’s Brigham & Women’s Hospital demonstrated a statistical association between a history of genital talc containing product usage and ovarian cancer.

Results of the study show an increase in risk of ovarian cancer. An article about Dr. Cramer’s research appeared in the August 12, 1982 edition of The New York Times. The research examined the health history and genital talc use of 215 women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and measured them to women who didn’t use talc. The results showed a link between the genital use of talc and ovarian cancer. Across the continuing years, no fewer than 15 studies have demonstrated that long-term, frequent, genital use of talc-containing powder by women posed a 33% increase of the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Though some studies have suggested no link between the usage of baby powder and ovarian cancer, these studies have been criticized for not holding into account the length of time and frequency of talc usage which is the only correct measure of a woman’s exposure to talc.

Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer
During the formal discovery part of recent litigation involving Johnson & Johnson, information has come to light that expose company concerns over asbestos contaminated talc dating back several decades and that the company waged an intense effort to degrade test results, scientific details and other information that talc in its Baby Powder contained asbestos. The fact that Johnson & Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® body powder, in addition to other brands of talc containing powders might have been contaminated with asbestos, has re-focused most of the nationwide litigation. Though most asbestos lawsuits and claims focus on employment, military and industrial-related exposure to asbestos, and asbestos containing products as a source of mesothelioma, the ever increasing recent litigation is now focusing on the connection between asbestos, talc and ovarian cancer.

Focusing on both the factual and scientific connections between exposure to asbestos contaminated talc powders and the development of ovarian cancer, the legal war is evolving and being joined by many women that have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

More Information Regarding Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer and The Subtypes
Ovarian cancer is a general term that includes various subtypes that are known and distinguishable by their various characteristics and their location. Most ovarian cancer is found in the epithelium, that is the layer of tissue which surrounds the ovary. About ninety percent of all ovarian cancers are observed in the epithelium. There are various subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers which includes serous cell and endometrioid.

Another subtype is peritoneal ovarian cancer. A small percentage of ovarian cancer cases begin in the peritoneum which is bodily tissue which is separate and away from the ovaries. The peritoneum is a thin membrane that covers, protects, and assists in supporting the stomach organs including all of the reproductive organs.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
The most common types of ovarian cancer are the epithelial cancers, all of which are located in the epithelium — the layer of tissue that surrounds the ovary. Within this group are the following subtypes:

Serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer
This is the most frequent subtype of all epithelial ovarian cancer, at approximately sixty percent of newly discovered cases of ovarian cancer. When diagnosed, serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer is frequently classified as either low-grade or high-grade depending upon the nuclei and mitotic characteristics of the cells.

Endometrioid ovarian cancer
This subtype is identified by its relationship to the endometrium, that is the membrane that is the interior lining of the uterus. Endometrioid ovarian cancer can frequently develop in connection with other cancers, diseases, or abnormalities which may affect the endometrium such as endometriosis.

Mucinous, Clear Cell, and Unclassified/Undifferentiated
These 3 are less frequent subtypes of ovarian cancer. Though distinguishable for diagnostic purposes, the prescribed treatment for each is the same.

Peritoneal Ovarian Cancers
Peritoneal ovarian cancer starts out of the ovaries, in one or more locations of the peritoneum tissue. It can expand to other areas in the abdomen which includes, in some cases, the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that surrounds, guards, and helps support the abdominal organs which includes, for women, the uterus and each of the other female reproductive organs. The peritoneum includes epithelial cells and, in this manner, is similar to the epithelium tissue that encapsulates the ovaries. Due to this, treatment of epithelial and peritoneal cancers is frequently similar. However, peritoneal cancer could be isolated to the peritoneum and not affect the ovaries. It can develop in women that have had their ovaries removed. Primary peritoneal cancer may appear anywhere in the peritoneum and not include the ovaries.

Peritoneal ovarian cancer usually means that cancer cells are present in each of the peritoneum and one or both ovaries. The serous cell lining of the ovaries and the serous cell composition of the peritoneum signal each other and, in this case, cancer cells may migrate, through shedding or other processes, between the two. When cancer cells are present in both of the ovaries and the peritoneum, the diagnosis is peritoneal ovarian cancer.

Staging of Ovarian Cancers
When ovarian cancer is diagnosed, peritoneal, it’s then staged to understand its severity and possible treatment options. A common ovarian cancer staging protocol is as follows:

Stage I — Presence of the cancer is limited to the ovary or ovaries.

Stage IA — Presence is limited to one ovary and the tumor is confined to the inside of the ovary. There’s no cancer on the outer surface of the ovary. There are no ascites present containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IB — Presence is limited to both ovaries minus any tumor on their outer surfaces. There are no ascites appearing containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IC — The tumor is determined as either Stage IA or IB and one or more of the following appear: tumor is present on the outer surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage II — Growth of the cancer involves one or both ovaries with pelvic extension.

Stage IIA — The cancer has extended to and includes the uterus or the fallopian tubes, or both.

Stage IIB — The cancer has moved to other pelvic organs.

Stage IIC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IIA or IIB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is appearing on the outer area of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage III — Growth of the cancer includes one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following are present: the cancer has extended past the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; and the cancer has expanded to lymph nodes. The tumor is confined to the true pelvis but with histologically proven malignant migration to the small bowel or omentum.

Stage IIIA — During the staging operation, the practitioner can observe cancer including one or both of the ovaries, yet no cancer is grossly visible in the abdomen and it hasn’t migrated to lymph nodes. Yet, when biopsies are checked under a microscope, very small amounts of cancer are discovered in the abdominal peritoneal areas.

Stage IIIB — The cancer is in one or both ovaries, and deposits of cancer are present in the abdomen that are big enough for the doctor to see but not exceeding 2 cm in size. The cancer has not expanded to the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIC — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following is present: the cancer has spread to lymph nodes; and the deposits of cancer are bigger than 2 cm in size and are observed in the abdomen.

Stage IV — This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Presence of the cancer involves one or both ovaries and distant metastases have happened. Discovering ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid is also evidence of stage IV disease.



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