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Создан: 19.09.2019
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Talc Powder and Ovarian Cancer

Четверг, 19 Сентября 2019 г. 17:15 + в цитатник

There are currently talcum powder issues where women, with a history of usage of talc products; Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder on their genitals, were diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Scientific studies and the World Health Organization have identified an association between long term genital use of talcum powder and cancer. In June 2013, Cancer Prevention Research shared a study that determined women that have a history of using talc-containing powder on their genital areas have a 20 to 30 percent increase in risk of contracting ovarian cancer. Presented with scientific determination, expert testimony, and factual evidence, a jury in St. Louis found that Johnson & Johnson neglected to warn consumers regarding the risk of ovarian cancer associated to the genital area usage of its talc-based powders. Company documents disclosed during the trial show that Johnson & Johnson was aware of the research and tried to discredit them. The jury awarded $72 million in damages to the family of a woman who succumbed to ovarian cancer and had a history of using Johnson’s Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder.

The Link Between Talcum Powder & Ovarian Cancer
The earliest scientific paper to outline a potential connection between talc and ovarian cancer was reported in 1971. Chronicled were pathology observations of tissue samples from 10 females diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The scientists noticed talc in each of the tissue samples, a sign that each woman’s talc containing powder had migrated from her external genitalia to her internal organs. 11 years later, an epidemiological study conducted by Dr. Daniel Cramer of Boston’s Brigham & Women’s Hospital demonstrated a statistical link between a history of genital talc containing powder usage and ovarian cancer.

Results of the research show an increase in risk of ovarian cancer. An article regarding Dr. Cramer’s study appeared in the August 12, 1982 issue of The New York Times. The study examined the health history and genital talc use of 215 women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and compared them to women who didn’t use talc. The results indicated an association between the genital use of talc and ovarian cancer. Across the ensuing years, more than 15 studies have demonstrated that long-term, frequent, genital use of talc-containing products by women created a 33% increase of the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Though a few studies have implied no link between the use of baby powder and ovarian cancer, those studies have been discredited for not taking into account the duration and frequency of talc usage which is the only proper measurement of a woman’s exposure to talc.

Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer
During the formal discovery part of recent litigation that involves Johnson & Johnson, information has come to light that expose company concerns over asbestos contaminated talc that dates back several decades and that the company waged a fierce effort to minimize test results, scientific papers and other information that talc in its Baby Powder contained asbestos. That Johnson & Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower Body Powder, as well as other brands of talc containing powders might have been contaminated with asbestos, has focused most of the nationwide litigation. Though most asbestos lawsuits and claims focus on employment, military and industrial-related exposure to asbestos, and asbestos related products as a source of mesothelioma, the growing recent litigation is now focused on the link between asbestos, talc and ovarian cancer.

Focusing on both the factual and scientific links between exposure to asbestos contaminated talc products and the appearance of ovarian cancer, the litigation is continuing to evolve and being joined by thousands of women who have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

More News Regarding Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer and Its Subtypes
Ovarian cancer is a generic term which combines various subtypes that are known and distinguishable by their various characteristics and their location. The majority of ovarian cancer is found in the epithelium, which is the layer of tissue which surrounds the ovary. About ninety percent of all ovarian cancers are observed in the epithelium. There are several subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers which includes serous cell and endometrioid.

Another subtype is peritoneal ovarian cancer. A small percent of ovarian cancer cases start in the peritoneum that is bodily tissue which is separate and distinct from the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that surrounds, protects, and assists in supporting the abdominal organs including all of the reproductive organs.


Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
The most frequent type of ovarian cancer are the epithelial cancers, all that are found in the epithelium — the layer of tissue that surrounds the ovary. In this group are the following subtypes:


Serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer
This is the most common subtype of all epithelial ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately sixty percent of newly diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer. When baby powder cancer , serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer is frequently classified as either low grade or high grade determined by the nuclei and mitotic characteristics of the cells.


Endometrioid ovarian cancer
This subtype is known from its relationship to the endometrium, that is the membrane that is the interior lining of the uterus. Endometrioid ovarian cancer can often develop in connection with other cancers, diseases, or abnormalities which may affect the endometrium such as endometriosis.


Mucinous, Clear Cell, and Unclassified/Undifferentiated
Those three are less common subtypes of ovarian cancer. Though distinguishable for testing purposes, the prescribed treatment for each is similar.


Peritoneal Ovarian Cancers
Peritoneal ovarian cancer originates outside of the ovaries, in one or more areas of the peritoneum tissue. It may expand to other areas in the abdomen which includes, in some cases, the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that covers, guards, and helps support the abdominal organs that includes, for women, the uterus and each of the other female reproductive organs. The peritoneum consists of epithelial cells and, in this way, is similar to the epithelium tissue that covers the ovaries. Due to this, treatment of epithelial and peritoneal cancers is commonly similar. However, peritoneal cancer could be isolated to the peritoneum and not affect the ovaries. It could develop in women that have had their ovaries removed. Primary peritoneal cancer could occur in any location in the peritoneum and not implicate the ovaries.

Peritoneal ovarian cancer generally means that cancer cells are present in each of the peritoneum and one or both ovaries. The serous cell lining of the ovaries and the serous cell composition of the peritoneum communicate with each other and, in this manner, cancer cells can move, through shedding or other processes, between the two. When cancer cells are present in both of the ovaries and the peritoneum, the diagnosis is peritoneal ovarian cancer.

Staging of Ovarian Cancers
Once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, peritoneal, it’s then staged to determine its severity and potential treatment options. A frequent ovarian cancer staging protocol is as follows:

Stage I — Growth of the cancer is limited to the ovary or ovaries.

Stage IA — Presence is limited to one ovary while the tumor is limited to the inside of the ovary. There’s no cancer in the outer surface of the ovary. There are no ascites present containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IB — Presence is limited to both ovaries without any tumor on their outer area. There are no ascites observed containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IA or IB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is present on the outer surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites containing malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage II — Presence of the cancer includes one or both ovaries with pelvic extension.

Stage IIA — The cancer has migrated to and involves the uterus or the fallopian tubes, or both.

Stage IIB — The cancer has extended to other pelvic organs.

Stage IIC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IIA or IIB and one or more of the following appear: tumor is present on the outer surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites containing malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage III — Growth of the cancer includes one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following are present: the cancer has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; and the cancer has spread to lymph nodes. The tumor is confined to the true pelvis but with histologically proven malignant extension to the small bowel or omentum.

Stage IIIA — During the staging operation, the practitioner can see cancer involving one or both of the ovaries, but no cancer is grossly visible in the abdomen and it has not moved to lymph nodes. Yet, when biopsies are observed under a microscope, very tiny deposits of cancer are found in the abdominal peritoneal areas.

Stage IIIB — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and traces of cancer are present in the abdomen that are big enough for the surgeon to see but not bigger than 1 inch in size. The cancer hasn’t migrated to the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIC — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following is present: the cancer has spread to lymph nodes; and the deposits of cancer are bigger than 1 inch in diameter and are observed in the abdomen.

Stage IV — This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Presence of the cancer includes one or both ovaries and distant metastases have occurred. Discovering ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid is additionally evidence of stage IV disease.

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