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Создан: 19.09.2019
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Talc Products and Ovarian Cancer

Четверг, 19 Сентября 2019 г. 17:08 + в цитатник

There are currently talcum powder issues where women, with a history of usage of talc products; Johnson’s Baby Powder and Shower to Shower Body Powder on their genitals, were diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Scientific studies and the World Health Organization have identified a link between long term genital use of talcum powder and cancer. During June 2013, Cancer Prevention Research shared a study that determined women with a history of using talc-containing powder on their genital region have a 20 to 30 percent increased risk of contracting ovarian cancer. Presented with scientific determination, expert testimony, and factual evidence, a court in St. talc powder lawsuit determined that Johnson & Johnson neglected to warn people about the risk of ovarian cancer connected to the genital region usage of its talc-based powders. Internal company documents shared during the trial show that Johnson & Johnson was aware of the studies and tried to discredit them. The jury awarded $72 million in damages to the family of a woman who died from ovarian cancer and had a history of using Johnson’s Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder.

The Connection Between Talcum Powder & Ovarian Cancer
The earliest scientific research to outline a possible link between talc and ovarian cancer presented itself in 1971. Chronicled were pathology examinations of tissue samples from 10 females diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The researchers found talc in each of the tissue samples, an indication that each woman’s talc containing powder had moved from her external genitalia to her internal organs. 11 years later, an epidemiological study conducted by Dr. Daniel Cramer of Boston’s Brigham & Women’s Hospital demonstrated a statistical link between a history of genital talc containing powder usage and ovarian cancer.

Results of the research show an increase in risk of ovarian cancer. An article about Dr. Cramer’s research appeared in the August 12, 1982 edition of The New York Times. The study examined the wellness history and genital talc usage of 215 women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and compared them to women who didn’t use talc. The results indicated an association between the genital use of talc and ovarian cancer. Over the continuing years, no fewer than fifteen studies have demonstrated that long-term, frequent, genital use of talc-containing powder by women posed a 33% increase in the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Though some studies have suggested no connection between the usage of baby powder and ovarian cancer, these studies have been discredited for not taking into account the length of time and regularity of talc use which is the only proper measure of a woman’s exposure to talc.

Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer
During the formal discovery process in recent litigation involving Johnson & Johnson, documents have come to light that expose company worries over asbestos contaminated talc that dates back several decades and that the company waged an intense campaign to hide data, scientific papers and other information that talc in its Baby Powder® contained asbestos. That Johnson & Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® body powder, as well as other brands of talc containing products might have been contaminated with asbestos, has focused most of the nationwide litigation. Though most asbestos lawsuits and claims focus on work, military and industrial-related risk to asbestos, and asbestos contaminated products as causing mesothelioma, the ever increasing recent litigation is now focused on the connection between asbestos, talc and ovarian cancer.

Focused on both the factual and scientific connections between exposure to asbestos contaminated talc products and the development of ovarian cancer, the legal effort is evolving and being joined by thousands of women who have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

More News Regarding Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer and Its Subtypes
Ovarian cancer is a broad phrase that includes various subtypes that are known and distinguishable by their various characteristics and their location. The majority of ovarian cancer is found in the epithelium, that is the layer of tissue which surrounds the ovary. About 90% of all ovarian cancers are located in the epithelium. There are numerous subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers that includes serous cell and endometrioid.

An additional subtype is peritoneal ovarian cancer. A small percent of ovarian cancer issues originate in the peritoneum that is bodily tissue that is separate and away from the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that covers, protects, and assists in supporting the abdominal organs including all of the reproductive organs.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
The most common types of ovarian cancer are the epithelial cancers, all of which are found in the epithelium — the layer of tissue that surrounds the ovary. Within this group are the following subtypes:

Serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer
This is the most common subtype of all epithelial ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately 60% of newly diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer. When diagnosed, serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer is frequently classified as either low grade or high grade depending upon the nuclei and mitotic characteristics of the cells.

Endometrioid ovarian cancer
This subtype is identified from its relationship to the endometrium, that is the membrane that is the interior lining of the uterus. Endometrioid ovarian cancer could often develop in connection with other cancers, diseases, or abnormalities which may affect the endometrium such as endometriosis.

Mucinous, Clear Cell, and Unclassified/Undifferentiated
These 3 are less frequent subtypes of ovarian cancer. Though recognizable for testing purposes, the prescribed treatment for each of them is the same.

Peritoneal Ovarian Cancers
Peritoneal ovarian cancer begins outside of the ovaries, in one or more locations of the peritoneum tissue. It could expand to other areas in the abdomen including, in some cases, the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that surrounds, guards, and assists in the supporting of the abdominal organs that includes, for women, the uterus and each of the other female reproductive organs. The peritoneum consists of epithelial cells and, in this manner, is similar to the epithelium tissue that encapsulates the ovaries. Because of this, treatment of epithelial and peritoneal cancers is commonly similar. However, peritoneal cancer can be confined to the peritoneum and not affect the ovaries. It can develop in women who have had their ovaries removed. Primary peritoneal cancer could appear anywhere in the peritoneum and not implicate the ovaries.

Peritoneal ovarian cancer generally means that cancer cells are present in each of the peritoneum and one or both ovaries. The serous cell lining of the ovaries and the serous cell composition of the peritoneum communicate with each other and, in this manner, cancer cells can migrate, through shedding or other processes, between the two. When cancer cells are present in both of the ovaries and the peritoneum, the diagnosis is peritoneal ovarian cancer.

Staging of Ovarian Cancers
When ovarian cancer is diagnosed, peritoneal, it is then staged to understand its severity and potential treatment options. A common ovarian cancer staging protocol is as follows:

Stage I — Growth of the cancer is limited to the ovary or ovaries.

Stage IA — Growth is limited to one ovary and the tumor is confined to the inside of the ovary. There is no cancer in the outer surface of the ovary. There are no ascites present that contain malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IB — Presence is limited to both ovaries without any tumor on their outer area. There are no ascites appearing that contain malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IC — The tumor is determined as either Stage IA or IB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is confirmed on the outer surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage II — Growth of the cancer includes one or both ovaries with pelvic extension.

Stage IIA — The cancer has extended to and includes the uterus or the fallopian tubes, or both.

Stage IIB — The cancer has expanded to other pelvic organs.

Stage IIC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IIA or IIB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is present on the outer area of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage III — Growth of the cancer involves one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following are present: the cancer has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; and the cancer has expanded to lymph nodes. The tumor is limited to the true pelvis but with histologically proven malignant migration to the small bowel or omentum.

Stage IIIA — During the staging operation, the doctor may see cancer including one or both of the ovaries, yet no cancer is grossly observable in the abdomen and it has not expanded to lymph nodes. Yet, when biopsies are checked on a microscope, very small deposits of cancer are found in the abdominal peritoneal areas.

Stage IIIB — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and deposits of cancer are appearing in the abdomen that are big enough for the doctor to observe but not bigger than 1 inch in diameter. The cancer hasn’t spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIC — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following is present: the cancer has expanded to lymph nodes; and the deposits of cancer exceed 2 cm in size and are found in the abdomen.

Stage IV — This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Growth of the cancer includes one or both ovaries and distant metastases have occurred. Discovering ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid is additionally evidence of stage IV disease.



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