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Создан: 19.09.2019
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Talc Products and Ovarian Cancer

Четверг, 19 Сентября 2019 г. 16:53 + в цитатник

There is currently talcum powder lawsuits where women, with a history of using talc products; Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower to Shower® Body Powder on their genitals, were diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Scientific research and the WHO have determined an association between long term genital usage of talcum powder and cancer. During June 2013, Cancer Prevention Research published a study that concluded females with a history of using talc containing powder in their genital region have a 20 to 30 percent increased risk of contracting ovarian cancer. Presented with scientific determination, expert testimony, and factual evidence, a court in St. Louis found that Johnson & Johnson failed to warn consumers regarding the risk of ovarian cancer associated to the genital region usage of its talc-based powders. Company documents disclosed during the trial indicate that Johnson & Johnson was aware of the research and attempted to discredit them. The jury awarded $72 million in compensation to the family of a woman who succumbed to ovarian cancer and had a history of using Johnson’s® Baby Powder and Shower to Shower Body Powder.

The Connection Between Talcum Powder & Ovarian Cancer
The earliest scientific paper to outline a possible link between talc and ovarian cancer appeared in 1971. Chronicled were pathology observations of tissue samples from ten women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The researchers found talc in each of the tissue samples, a sign that each woman’s talc containing powder had migrated from her external genitalia to her internal organs. 11 years later, an study performed by Dr. Cramer of Brigham & Women’s Hospital demonstrated a statistical link between a history of genital talc containing product usage and ovarian cancer.

baby powder lawsuit of the study show an increase in risk of ovarian cancer. An article about Dr. Cramer’s research was published in the August 1982 edition of The New York Times. The research examined the wellness history and genital talc use of 215 women who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer and compared them to women who did not use talc. The results showed a link between the genital use of talc and ovarian cancer. Over the ensuing years, no fewer than 15 studies have shown that long-term, regular, genital application of talc-containing products by women posed a 33% increase of the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Though a few studies have implied no connection between the use of baby powder and ovarian cancer, these studies have been discredited for not holding into account the length of time and frequency of talc usage which is the only correct measurement of a woman’s exposure to talc.

Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer
During the formal discovery part of recent litigation that involves Johnson & Johnson, information has come to light that reveal company worries about asbestos contaminated talc dating back several decades and that the company fought a fierce effort to degrade test results, scientific papers and other information that talc in its Baby Powder® contained asbestos. The fact that Johnson & Johnsons Baby Powder® and Shower to Shower® body powder, as well as other brands of talc containing powders could have been contaminated with asbestos, has re-focused most of the nationwide litigation. Though most asbestos litigation and claims focus on employment, military and industrial-related exposure to asbestos, and asbestos contaminated products as a source of mesothelioma, the growing recent litigation is now focusing on the connection between asbestos, talc and ovarian cancer.

Focused on both the factual and scientific connections between risk to asbestos contaminated talc powders and the appearance of ovarian cancer, the legal landscape is continuing to evolve and being joined by thousands of women that have been diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

More Information Regarding Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer and The Subtypes
Ovarian cancer is a general term which includes various subtypes that are known and distinguishable by their various characteristics and their location. Most ovarian cancer is located in the epithelium, that is the layer of tissue which surrounds the ovary. Approximately ninety percent of all ovarian cancers are found in the epithelium. There are numerous subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers including serous cell and endometrioid.

Another subtype is peritoneal ovarian cancer. A low percentage of ovarian cancer issues begin in the peritoneum that is bodily tissue which is separate and away from the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that surrounds, protects, and assists in supporting the abdominal organs including all of the reproductive organs.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancers
The most frequent type of ovarian cancer are the epithelial cancers, all that are located in the epithelium — the layer of tissue that covers the ovary. In this group are the following subtypes:

Serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer
This is the most common subtype of all epithelial ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately 60% of newly found cases of ovarian cancer. When diagnosed, serous cell epithelial ovarian cancer is frequently classified as either low grade or high-grade determined by the nuclei and mitotic characteristics of the cells.

Endometrioid ovarian cancer
This subtype is identified from its relationship to the endometrium, that is the membrane that is the inside lining of the uterus. Endometrioid ovarian cancer may often develop in conjunction with other cancers, diseases, or issues that may affect the endometrium such as endometriosis.

Mucinous, Clear Cell, and Unclassified/Undifferentiated
Those 3 are less frequent subtypes of ovarian cancer. Though distinguishable for testing purposes, the prescribed treatment for each of them is similar.

Peritoneal Ovarian Cancers
Peritoneal ovarian cancer starts outside of the ovaries, in one or more locations of the peritoneum tissue. It may move to other locations in the abdomen which includes, in some cases, the ovaries. The peritoneum is a membrane that covers, guards, and assists in the supporting of the abdominal organs which includes, for women, the uterus and all of the other female reproductive organs. The peritoneum includes epithelial cells and, in this way, is similar to the epithelium tissue that covers the ovaries. Because of this, treatment of epithelial and peritoneal cancers is often similar. However, peritoneal cancer might be confined to the peritoneum and not affect the ovaries. It could develop in women that have had their ovaries removed. Primary peritoneal cancer might occur in any location in the peritoneum and not implicate the ovaries.

Peritoneal ovarian cancer generally means that cancer cells are present in both the peritoneum and one or both ovaries. The serous cell lining of the ovaries and the serous cell composition of the peritoneum communicate with each other and, in this manner, cancer cells could migrate, through shedding or other processes, between the two. When cancer cells are present in both of the ovaries and the peritoneum, the diagnosis is peritoneal ovarian cancer.

Staging of Ovarian Cancers
Once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, peritoneal, it’s then staged to understand its severity and possible treatment options. A frequent ovarian cancer staging protocol is as follows:

Stage I — Growth of the cancer is limited to the ovary or ovaries.

Stage IA — Growth is limited to one ovary and the tumor is confined to the inside of the ovary. There is no cancer on the outer surface of the ovary. There are no ascites present containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IB — Growth is confined to both ovaries minus any tumor on their outer surfaces. There are no ascites appearing containing malignant cells. The capsule is intact.

Stage IC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IA or IB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is observed on the outside area of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that contain malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage II — Growth of the cancer involves one or both ovaries with pelvic extension.

Stage IIA — The cancer has migrated to and involves the uterus or the fallopian tubes, or both.

Stage IIB — The cancer has expanded to other pelvic organs.

Stage IIC — The tumor is classified as either Stage IIA or IIB and one or more of the following are present: tumor is appearing on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; the capsule has ruptured; and there are ascites that include malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings.

Stage III — Presence of the cancer involves one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following are present: the cancer has extended beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; and the cancer has spread to lymph nodes. The tumor is confined to the true pelvis but with histologically proven malignant extension to the small bowel or omentum.

Stage IIIA — During the staging operation, the practitioner may observe cancer involving one or both of the ovaries, but no cancer is grossly visible in the abdomen and it has not spread to lymph nodes. Yet, when biopsies are observed under a microscope, very tiny deposits of cancer are discovered in the abdominal peritoneal areas.

Stage IIIB — The cancer is in one or both ovaries, and traces of cancer are present in the abdomen that are big enough for the doctor to observe but not exceeding 2 cm in size. The cancer has not expanded to the lymph nodes.

Stage IIIC — The tumor is in one or both ovaries, and one or both of the following is present: the cancer has expanded to lymph nodes; and the deposits of cancer exceed 2 cm in diameter and are observed in the abdomen.

Stage IV — This is the most advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Presence of the cancer involves one or both ovaries and distant metastases have happened. Discovering ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid is also evidence of stage IV disease.



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