-

  • HTML (5)
  • (7)
  • (19)
  • (9)
  • , (5)
  • Ѩ (356)
  •    gimp (4)
  •     (29)
  •     (2)
  •     (1)
  •     (50)
  •    - (26)
  •    + (6)
  •     (6)
  •     (3)
  •     (28)
  •     (17)
  •     (78)
  •     (3)
  •     (15)
  •     (15)
  •     (39)
  •     (4)
  •     (16)
  •     (7)
  •     (1)
  •     (10)
  • Ѩ (113)
  •     (32)
  •     (10)
  • (303)
  •    ,,, (49)
  • () (1)
  • (662)
  •     (4)
  •     (3)
  •     (18)
  •     (20)
  •    , (29)
  •     (21)
  •     (3)
  •     (2)
  •     (8)
  •    , (14)
  •     (3)
  •     (3)
  •     (40)
  •     (28)
  •    + (6)
  •     (1)
  •     (11)
  •     (12)
  •     (17)
  •    ,, (10)
  •     (19)
  • (10)
  •     (1)
  • Daily (8)
  •     (4)
  •     (2)
  •     (1)
  • (974)
  •     (2)
  •     (1)
  •     (8)
  •     (31)
  •     (2)
  •     (3)
  •     (23)
  •    , (35)
  •     (8)
  •     (56)
  •    ,, (25)
  •     , (29)
  •     ENTRELAK (1)
  •    ,,,, (64)
  •     (4)
  • (7)
  • (18)
  • (56)
  •    Bellissima (1)
  •    Burda moden (4)
  •    Diana Moden() (2)
  •    Susanna (1)
  •    VERENA (3)
  •     (1)
  •     (1)
  •     (2)
  •     (2)
  •     (2)
  •     (3)
  •     (1)
  •     (2)
  •     (2)
  •     (6)
  •     (2)
  • (18)
  • (69)
  •     (42)
  • (15)
  •     (3)
  •     (1)
  •     (3)
  • (22)
  • (5)
  • (6)
  • (7)
  • (5)
  • - (20)
  • , (5)
  • , (5)
  • (45)
  • (6)
  • (2)
  • (1)
  • ( ) (1)
  • (2)
  • (67)
  •    Corel Paint Sop Pro (4)
  •     (1)
  •     (2)
  •     , (20)
  •     fotomix 8.5 portable rus (1)
  •     (18)
  • ( ) (3)
  • . (30)
  • (12)
  • ר (10)
  • "" (6)
  • (2)
  • (5)
  • (1008)
  •    , (19)
  •     (1)
  •    " " (1)
  •     (76)
  •     (67)
  •     (67)
  •     (3)
  •     (20)
  •     (73)
  •     (2)
  •     (71)
  •     (335)
  •     (8)
  •     (33)
  •     (2)
  •     (88)
  •     (37)
  •     (2)
  •     (7)
  •     (1)
  •     (5)
  •     (8)
  •     (18)
  •     (28)
  •     (16)
  •     (1)
  •     (9)
  •     (22)
  •     (6)
  •     (2)
  •     (29)
  •     (86)
  • (37)
  •     (20)
  •     (2)
  •     (3)
  • (2)
  • (200)
  •     (31)
  •     (2)
  •     . (4)
  •     (5)
  •     (3)
  •     (16)
  •     (3)
  •     (18)
  •     (1)
  •     (23)
  •     (8)
  •     (32)
  •     (1)
  •     (1)
  •     (1)
  • (12)
  •     (2)
  • (3)
  • (11)
  • (1)
  • , (18)
  • (39)
  •     (2)
  •     (14)
  •    . ledi_Meledi. (2)
  •    - (3)
  •     (11)
  •     (1)
  • ܨ, (267)
  •     (4)
  •    C (1)
  •     () (1)
  •     (12)
  •     (34)
  •     (1)
  •     - (1)
  •    "" (2)
  • (2)

 -

 -

   svetylea67

 - e-mail

 

 -

 LiveInternet.ru:
: 06.05.2011
: 4384
: 361
: 5312

:

(0)

, 25 2012 . 12:49 +

 

1. " " - , , .

  ?

...


:  
(0)

: 12

, 27 2012 . 15:52 +
__ [ + !]



. . , , , , ? , ! , , , . – , .

3925073_00000000495 (600x600, 130Kb)

 

>>> 



:  
(0)

, 26 2012 . 11:32 +
ANDREI-STOLIAR [ + !]



. .



/


:  
(0)

, 28 2011 . 16:04 +
rimirk [ + !]





, , , , . , . , , .

.

. >>>>>
/

:  
(0)

...

, 18 2011 . 10:06 +
_ [ + !]

ܨ,

:  
(0)

, 13 2011 . 20:29 +
_ [ + !]

.

 

, .

 

, .

10 10 .

.

 

.

, .

22 – .

 

Word -->   -->    -->    -->

/

:  
(0)

, 11 2011 . 12:09 +
ELENA_MOHORIN [ + !]

.



1.
51176440 (412x456, 37Kb)
/

:  
(0)

, 01 2011 . 22:06 +
- [ + !]

. .

, .
1-1 (567x700, 338Kb)

...
/

:  
(0)

ܨ,

, 12 2011 . 15:09 +
[ + !]

, :

http://vechernie-posidelki.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post.html 

. , , ... n- . . , "", , , , "" .

? 

, , . , ? , .

1) , , 5 , . , , !
2) . , ( 1). . , ( 2).

 

3) (, , ..).
4) , , , , , . .

?


 , : - . (, , ) . , "" , . , , , ... , ! , . , , ( "Insta-Bond Tape" Hemline). : , . , ( , , ), . . , ( , ) . ! . - , (!) . . ( ) . , , . . , "" .

? 

, , . , , , , , , , , . . . , , , , .

? 

, ? , , , , , . , . , , , , , :). , - , . , ( 1). ( 2). (!) ( 3). (4).
 

? 


 

. . , , , .
1) . , , ( 1).
2) ( 2). , , .
3) . .

 

 : , , !

ܨ,

:  
(0)

, 11 2011 . 16:40 +
5819 [ + !]

!...

1221764 (90x90, 2Kb)
, , .

- ( ) , , , , , .

 

p :


:  
(0)

ܨ,

, 10 2011 . 23:48 +
[ + !]

"": ""

 

 

ܨ,

:  
(0)

, 25 2011 . 17:48 +
Vassya [ + !]



:

15

http://knitting-dict-ru.wikidot.com/about

:

* (, ), - , .

3

3-needle joining technique
. , , , ,

A

Abandon
Accented increase ( acc inc )
( , , , , , , , . , , 1-2-3 ., )
According to
Accordingly ( acc )
,
Acrylic
Alike, similary
,
All
Alpaca
Also
Alternate(ly) ( alt )
(alt K2, P2 - 2*2)
Alternate(alternating) row ( alt row )
, (), ( - , )
Altogether ( altog )
Always
Angora
Approximate(ly) ( approx )
Arm (sleeve)
()
Armhole
As
Aside
()
Assembly
At the same time
,

B

B & T
(break off yarn and thread through stitches on needle) -
Back
,
Back-and-forth
- ( )
Back loop (of st)
, ()
Back loop only ( BLO )
()
Back post double crochet ( BP dc )
( )
Back post half double crochet (bphdc)
1 , (, , , , , 3 . - . .. . )
Back post single crochet ( BPSC )
Back post treble crochet ( BPTR )
2 - 2 , , , (, 2 . ) 3 .
Back, through of loop
,
Backstitch
« »
Ball
Bamboo
Begin (beginning) ( beg )
,
Belt
Between ( bet )
Bind off ( BO )
Blend
( )
Block(s) ( bl(s) )
: -
Blocking
(- ) , , ,
Bobble
,
Bobble i
: 6 1 , 1 , 1 , , 4 , , 4 , , 2 2 , 2 .
Bobble ii
: , 5 ( ), , 4 .. , 2,3,4,5 , , ,
Body
Border
,
Boucle
Buttons
()
Buttonhole

C

Cable (braids)
()
Cable needle ( cn )
,
Camel
Cap
, ;
Cardigan
/
Carry out
Cashmere
Cast on ( CO ), pick up
Cast off /bend off /fasten off, casting/binding off
,
Casting (eg for elastic)
( " ")
Center
Centre front/back
/
Central double increase ( CDI )
2- : , : 3
Central stitch
Chain(s), chain stitch(s) ( ch(s) )
,
Chain(s) space ( ch sp )
Change
Chenille
Chest measurement
Circular
Circular needle
Cluster(s) ( cl(s) )
(, , )
Collar
()
Colour ( col )
Complete length
Continue ( cont )
Contrasting color ( CC )
Cotton
Criss-cross(ed)
() (to the left - , to the right - )
Crochet
Crochet border
Crochet hook
Cross
,
Cross stitch ( cr st - fcr, bcr )
, (front/back cross stitch - / )
Crossed double crochet ( Cr dc )
Cuff
()
Curved
Cut (of a garment)
(deep neckline - , V-neck - , V-)

D

Decrease(s), -ing(s) ( dec(s) )
()
Density
Diagram
Distribute
Divide
Divide at the center
Double crochet ( dc )
[ ]
Double decrease ( DD )
2- : 2 , , 1 , 2
Double double treble crochet ( ddtc )
Double treble crochet ( dtr, dbl tr )
[ ]
Double pointed needle ( DP or dpn )
/
Draw through a loop
()
Dress
Drop (a stitch)
()
Duplicate ( dup )

E

Each
Edge, selvedge
,
Edge stitch ( edge st )
Elastane
Elastic
End
Established ( est )
Every other row ( EOR )
Even
Embroidery
Every
Except
, ,
Explanation
Eyelet pattern
Explanation of symbols
Extended single crochet
( , , , , ) -

F

Fan
"" ( . *. ., ..* * * 4 , . .)
Fasten off
,
Finishing
First
Fold
()
Following ( foll )
From * to *
* *
Front
( )
Front band
,
Front band (with buttonholes)
( )
Front loop
Front loop only
Front piece, right side ( RS )
,
Front post dc ( FP dc )
( )
Front post half double crochet (fphdc)
1 , : , , , , , 3 . ( . .. . )
Front post single crochet ( Fpsc )
Front post treble crochet ( Fptr )
2
Front side (of work)
()

G

Garter stitch ( garter st, gst )
Gauge
( density);
Gloves
Grab
Graft (grafting)
Grams ( g - gr )

H

Half double crochet ( hdc )
Hank of yarn
Hem
Hemp
Hips
Half treble crochet ( htr )
[ ]
Hat
Hole, opening
Hook (hk)

I

Inch
(1 = 2,54 )
Inclination, slope
Including
Increase ( inc )
,
Inwards
,

J

Join

K

Kapok yarn
( – )
Knit (stitch) ( K )
()
Knit
Knit into back of stich
Knit 1 in back loop of stitch ( K1b )
Knit one, purl one ( k1p1 )
,
Knit two (2) stitches together ( K2tog )
( )
Knitting needle (round; straight)
(; )
Knit row
Knit up stitches
Knitting
Knitting needle
Knitting pattern
, ,
Knitwise ( kwise )
Knot

L

Lace
,
Last
Leave remaining
()
Left
Left hand needle ( LH )
Left side ( LS )
Length
Lengthwise
Like this
Linen
Long
,
Loop(s) ( lp(s) )
(), (); —

M

Main color ( MC )
Maize yarn (corn yarn - )
( )
Make bobble ( mb )
Make loop ( ML )
1, , 1-2 , ,
Make one ( M1 )
;
Make one picot (M1P)
c 1
Make tassel ( MT )
" "/ ( , , 2 5 , , )
Marker
Marking thread ( MT )
Measures ( meas )
,
Measurment
Merino
Microfiber
Milk yarn
Mirrored
,
Miss/pass over/skip
(, )
Mittens
, , (??)
Mohair
Months
Moss stitch
«»
Multiple mult

N

Neck
Neckband
Neckline
()
Needle
; (sewing)
Notes
Number ( no )
Number of rows
Number of rows in length
Nylon

O

Odd
Odd number of row
Odd number of stitches
One
()
One size
/
Only
Opening, hole
Openwork
Opposite side
,
Or
Ounce(s) ( Oz )
- 28,35.
Over
, ,
Over each other

P

Pass slip stitch over ( psso )
Pattern(s) ( patt(s) )
,
Pattern chart
Pick up, cast on
Pick up and knit
Pick up and purl
Picot ( p )
Pin
(safety pin - )
Place
Place marker ( pm )
(, , )
Place on stitch holder
-
Plain knitting
..,
Pleat
Pocket
Polyamide
Polyester
Pound ( lbs )
1 (456 )
Previous ( prev )
Previous row
e
Puff stitch ( ps )
Pullover/sweater
/
Purl (stitch) ( P )
()
Purl 1 in back loop of stitch ( P1b )
Purl two (2) stitches together ( P2tog )
Purl-wise - as though to purl ( p-wise )

Q

Quadruple treble crochet ( qtr )
[ ]

R

Raffia yarn
( )
Raglan
Rayon, viscose
/
Remain(ing) ( rem )
-
Remove
Repeat(ing) ( rep )
Repeat (rapport)
()
Reverse
,
Reverse sc, crab stitch
Reverse stockinette stitch ( rev st st )
Rib(s)
(),
Ribbed knitting
Ribbon
Ridge(s)
: 1) , 1- .. , . . . 2) , .
Right
Right (hand) needle ( RH )
Right front
( )
Right side ( RS )
,
Right Side Row ( RSR )
Round(s) ( rnd(s) )
,
Row
( )
Row of eyelet holes

S

Same
()
Scallop
"" ( . . ., .., . ., .., . .)
Scarf
Scissors
Seam
Second
Seed stitch ( seed st )
(1,1, , ); "";
Selvedge, edge
,
Seperate, seperated
,
Sew
Sew seams
()
Shape
,
Shawl
Shell
"" (, 3 dc worked in the same space - 3 , )
Short
Shoulder
Shoulder seams
Silk
Single crochet ( sc )
Single-pointed needles ( SP or spn )
Size
Skein
Skip ( sk )
Skip a stitch
Skirt
Sleeve
Sleeve top/cap shaping
(, )
Slip ( sl )
Slip bead ( SB1 )
Slip one knitwise ( sl1 kw )
1 . .
Slip(ped) stitch
( ) -
Slip stitch ( sl st )
- [ ]
Slip, slip, knit ( ssk )
( , , )
Slip, slip, purl ( ssp )
( , , , )
Slope, inclination
,
Small
Socks
Soy
Space(s) ( sp(s) )
, ,
Split
Stitch(es) ( st(s) )
(); ( sewing)
Stitch holder
-
Stockinette stitch ( St st, s/s )
,
Straight
Stretch
Stripes
Suitable
Sweater

T

Take in / decrease
Take out
Tencel
Then
Thread
Throat
Through
Through back of loop ( tbl )
Through front of loop ( tfl )
Thrown stitch
,
Times
To make up/join
,
Together ( tog )
Top shaping
(, )
Transfer
Treble cluster ( tr cluster )
() .2.
Treble crochet ( tr, trc )
2 [ ]
Trim
Triple treble crochet ( trtr )
4 [ ]
Turn
Turning chain
(), ,
Turtle neck sweater
Twist 4 left ( T4L )
3 , , 1 , 3 .
Twist 4 right ( T4R )
1 , , . 3 , - .
Twisted (up)
Twisted knit stitch ( tK, twisted k St )
Twisted or crossed stitch

V

Variegated yarn
Vest
Viscose
Visible Increase (VI)
( , . )

W

Waist
Whipstitch
,
Wind (wound) around (stitch)
,
Wire
With yarn in back ( wyib )
With yarn in front ( wyif )
Wool
Work even
Work off
(3 dc worked off tog [3 tr worked off tog] - 3 , , .. )
Work straight, work even
Wrap stitch
Wrong side ( WS )
,
Wrong Side Row ( WSR )

Y

Yard ( Yd )
= 91,44
Yarn
()
Yarn behind
Yarn forward ( Yfwd )
Yarn over ( yo )
Yarn round needle ( YRN )
Yarn to back of work ( YB, ytb )
Yarn to front of work ( YF, ytf )
Year
Yoke
Yarn to front of work ( ytf, YF )

1

1\1 lpc
1 . . , 1 ., .
1\1 rpc
1 . . , 1 ., .
1\2 lc
1 . . , 2 ., .
1\2 rc
1 . . , 2 ., .
1\2 rpc
1 . . , 2 ., .
1\3 rpc
1 . . , 3 ., .

2

2-st lc
1 . . , 1 ., .
2-st lpc
1 . . , 1 ., .
2-st rc
1 . . , 1 ., .
2-st rpc
1 . . , 1 ., .
2\1 lc
2 . . , 1 ., 2 . .
2\1 lpc
2 . . , 1 ., 2 . .
2\1 rc
2 . . , 1 ., 2 . .
2\1 rpc
2 . . , 1 ., 2 . .
2\2 lpc
2 . . , 2 ., 2 . .
2\2 rpc
2 . . , 2 ., 2 . .
2\3 lpc
2 . . , 3 ., 2 . .
2\3 rpc
2 . . , 3 ., 2 . .

3

3-bobble cluster
1 . 1 : 1 5 ( 1, 1, 1,1,1). 2- : 1 , 4 . 3,5,7- : 1 , 4. 9: 2 , 1, 2 .=3, 10- : 3 . , , . . 1-10 2 , .
3\1 lpc
3 . . , 1 ., 3 . .
3\1 rpc
1 . . , 3 ., .
3\2 lpc
3 . . , 2 ., 3 . .
3\2 rpc
3 . . , 2 ., 3 . .
3\2 rtc
3 , 2, , - .
3\3 lpc
3 . . , 3 ., 3 . .
3\3 rpc
3 . . , 3 ., 3 . .

4

4-st lc
2 . . , 2 ., 2 . .
4-st rc
2 . . , 2 ., 2 . .
4-st rpc
2 . . , 2 ., 2 . .
4\1 lpc
4 . . , 1 ., 4 . .
4\1 rpc
1 . . , 4 ., .

5

5-st lpc
2 , 1 , 2, 1 - , 2 -
5-st rlc
1 , 3 , 1, 3 - , 1 -
5-st rpc
3 , 2, , - .

6

6-st lc
3 . . , 3 ., 3 . .
6-st rc
3 . . , 3 ., 3 . .
6-st rpc
3 . . , 3 ., 3 . .

7

7-st lc
4 . . , 3 ., 4 . .
7-st rc
3 . . , 4 ., 3 . .

A

Acc
Alt
(alt K2, P2 - 2*2)
Approx

B

B & T
Bcr
( )
Beg
,
Bet
Blo
Bl(s)
: -
Bo
Bp dc
( )
Bphdc
1 , (, , , , , 3 . - . .. . )
Bp sc
Bptr
2

C

c2b
1 . . , 1 ., . . .
c2f
1 . . , 1 ., . . . .
C3r
1 , 1 , 1 , 1
Cc
Cdi
2- : , : 3
Ch(s)
(),
Ch sp
Cl(s)
(, , )
Cn
Co
Col
Cont
Cr dc
Cr st
(front/back cross stitch - / )
cr2rt
1 . . , 1 ., . .
cr2ft
1 . . , 1 ., . .

D

Dc
[ ]
Dc dec
. ., ,
Dd
2- : 2 , , 1 , 2
Ddtc
Dec 4
2 , 3 , = 4
Dec(s)
()
Dec sc
... , . ... ...
Dp or dpn
Dtr, dbl tr
[ ]
Dup

E

Edge st
Eor
Est

F

Fcr
( )
Foll
Fp dc
( )
Fphdc
1 , : , , , , , 3 . ( . .. . )
Fp sc
Fp tr
2

G

G - gr
Garter st, gst

H

Hdc
Htr
[ ]
Hk

I

Inc
,
Inc 1
:
Inc 1 p-st
. 1 .:
Inc 2
2 : 1, 1, 1

K

K
();
K1b
K1p1
,
K2p2
2 .., 2 ..
K2tog
( )
KFB
, ; , 1
KFBF
3 ( , , ); -
KOK
: 1 ., , 1 .
Kwise

L

Lbs
1 (456 )
Lh
,
Lp(s)
(), ()
Lh
Lp(s)
(), —
Ls
Lt
2- ., 1- .

M

M1
;
M1 p-st
.
M1L
:
M1P
c 1
M1R
:
Mb
Mc
Meas
,
Ml
1, , 1-2 , ,
Mt
- , , 2 5 , ,
Mt

N

Ndl
;
No

O

Oz
- 28,35.

P

p
P
()
P-wise
P1b
P2sso
2
P2tog
Patt(s)
,
Pm
()
po
.
Prev
Ps
Psso

Q

Qtr
[ ]

R

Rem
-
Rep
,
Rev st st
Rh
,
Rnd(s)
,
Rs
RSR
Rt
2- 2-2 , , 1-

S

S2kp
2 , 1,
Sb1
Sc
Seed st
(1,1, , )
Sk
Sk2p
, . 2 ,
Skp
, . ,
Sl
Sl st
[ ]
Sl1 kw
1 . .
Slm
Sp or spn
Sp(s)
, ,
Sp2p
, , 2
Ssk
( , , )
Ssp
( , , , )
St st, s/s
,
St(s)
(),

T

T2B
, 1 , 1
T2F
, 1 , 1
T4L
3 , , 1 , 3 .
T4R
1 , , . 3 , - .
Tbl
()
Tbl
Tfl
Tk, twisted k st
Tog
Tr, trc
2 [ ]
Tr cluster
() .2.
Triple dc dec
. .,
Trtr
4 [ ]

V

V-stitch
"" (. ., .., . . , . .)
VI
( , . )

W

W&T
: , , , ,
Ws
()
WSR
Wyib
Wyif

Y

Yb, ytb
Yd
= 91,44
Yf, ytf
Yfrn
" "
Yfwd
Yf, ytf, yfwd
Yo
Yrn

====================================================

/

:  
(0)

, 17 2011 . 09:39 +
[ + !]

- ! .

http://knitting-club.blogspot.com/2008/10/gauge-calc.html 


- 1- .
- 1- . , 1 , .. . , , .
, . , , .
12 12 . 45 , 35 , 25 , «» . 12 . , , , ( ). 10 10 . 10 . . 

  , . , . , — .

, , , . 10 10 . :

1
1.0
1.1 - 1.2
1.3 - 1.6
1.7

, , . . ( 2), , 1 2 . , , .
- . . , 1:1.3 1:1.4, , 1.15 1.6.


"" " "
:


knitPro (MicroRevolt) (.)
- GIF, JPEG PNG 1 / - 1:1, 5:7 7:5 (=1.4).


pdf (Acrobat Reader), . : 48 64 , 96 120 120 160.
. , , .
 

  Actual Size Graph Paper (.)
pdf A4 : 10 10 , ; ; . , 1/10, 10 . Acrobat Reader " ".
Free Online Graph Paper (.)
pdf : , , , , , , , , . , , . - , ..  

/

:  
(0)

Ѩ . .

, 16 2011 . 10:23 +
5819 [ + !]

: .

.

« » — , .

, — , .

- , - — , , , …

. - …
1163693_53543834-thumb (520x348, 125Kb)
, ,

) ,

) ,

) ,

)

  :

...

Ѩ

:  
(0)

, 12 2011 . 12:56 +
_ [ + !]



. . ­ . . . ­ .

 , - . !   - . - : - , . , .

. , ­. , , , , .

­ , ( 11, . .). , . , 27 ­ 3-4 ( - ), , .

" ":
1 - - 2
2 -
...
98 -
99 -
100 -
/

:  
(0)

.

, 03 2011 . 22:43 +
[ + !]



http://./2011/06/01/poleznye-sovety-po-vyazaniyu/ 

 

  

, :

  •   , . . , , - , . 10-15 . , , 2 — , , . , , , .
  • . 5 , . , .

  • , () , .

  • , .

  • — , , . , , , , .

  • , , — .

  • , . , .

     
  •  

    /

    :  
    (0)

    , 03 2011 . 21:46 +
    needlib [ + !]



    - , . . , - . :)

    , ,

    3356701_Viazanie (320x480, 29Kb)

    /

    :  
    (0)

    , 03 2011 . 21:12 +
    [ + !]

    +

    http://allmyhobby.ru/publ/stolbik_cherez_polovinu_petli/17-1-0-1545 

    " ", , "" ?

    , ? ,  , " ". () ().   , , , , .  . , " ", . , , . 

          





    :  
    (0)

    , 03 2011 . 08:44 +
    5819 [ + !]



    default (140x124, 4Kb)
    . , . - . . , . ? :
      60 , 100 , 40 , 30 ( ). 2 .. 2 . , 4-6, . 1/2 . 2-3 .
     


    13 2010



    :  
    (0)

    , 01 2011 . 09:52 +
    5819 [ + !]

    , !

     

    default (132x74, 2Kb)
          . , .

        1 ., 1 . , . 1 . . - .
         , , , — . , - , .

    ...


    :  

     : [2] 1