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Kyiv. Lavra Pecherskaya - Lavra Nebesnaya

Lavra Pecherskaya nebesnaya krasa.Foto Paul Lashkevich_ 05.Mar.2007_ 082.JPGLavra Pecherskaya.All Saints Bell.Foto Paul Lashkevich_14.June.2007_049.JPGLavra Pecherskaya.Lavra Nebesnaya Bell.Foto Paul Lashkevich_20.Sept.2008_DSC08039.JPG

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Ako sa jazdí v zime .. Liptov 2010 - 2011

, 05 2011 . 01:20 +

 Ako sa jazdí v zime .. Liptov 2010 - 2011



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hqA_ll2p-g

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, 05 2011 . 23:43 +
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- - (Clive Meredith)

, 04 2011 . 02:38 +
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, 04 2011 . 02:35 +
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, 04 2011 . 19:44 +
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http://community.livejournal.com/ru_learnenglish/1915221.html

" " by [info]alexroz in [info]ru_learnenglish.

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: 10 Things Your Language School Doesn't Want You to Know

  1. You don’t need a teacher or school to learn a foreign language
    There is an important distinction to be made between learning and schooling. Those who believe they need formal training in a language are making the false assumption that the two are one and the same. To reach fluency in a language, you need to acquire a great deal of tacit knowledge, that special kind of internalized, experience-based information that you may not be conscious of. The sad truth is that most teachers focus on explicit knowledge (e.g. facts about the language such as grammar rules), which has very little to do with one’s ability to speak a language. Explicit knowledge is easier to teach and test, however, which probably explains why it makes up the bulk of school curricula.

  2. You don’t need to learn grammar rules
    At some point in history, the education establishment convinced society that they needed to be “taught” languages. This was quite an amazing feat considering that all human beings are endowed by evolution (or God if you prefer) with the ability to automatically acquire any language they hear in adequate quantities. The problem for most learners (and the reason they buy into the “I need more schooling!” mentality) is that they never get an “adequate quantity” of language input. The irony is that this input deficiency is often caused by the very classes that are supposed to provide it. With a focus on memorizing grammar rules, most learners end up spending the vast majority of their time learning about a language instead of the language itself.

  3. Tests and grades do more harm than good
    Ideally, formalized testing and grading systems motivate students by providing competition and objective feedback. In reality, however, most grading is far from objective (teachers tend to reward students they like and penalize those they don’t), and tests do little more than demonstrate one’s ability to memorize facts. Feedback is important, but it needn’t be in the form of traditional testing or grades. Ask your teachers to evaluate your performance by giving specific examples of things you said right or wrong, not with multiple choice tests.

  4. Classes go as fast as the slowest person
    The bigger the class, the wider the range of abilities, and the slower the class will have to go. Schools know that students are more likely to stick with something too easy but will quickly throw in the towel if something is too difficult. And despite placement tests and numerous class levels, it can be very difficult to appropriately group students by their actual skill in the language. With finite time slots mutually convenient for all students in a given group, some students will inevitably be placed in classes that are above or below their actual ability level. Also, placement tests come with the same problems mentioned in # 3: they test one’s memory and knowledge (especially of the written word).

  5. Reading out loud does not improve your pronunciation or speaking ability
    Teachers often have students read out loud to allegedly “practice pronunciation.” The truth is that your pronunciation improves only from massive amounts of listening input and then massive amounts of speaking when you’re ready. Reading aloud does little more than show what words you are unfamiliar with and often reinforces mispronunciations instead of fixing them. While some teachers genuinely believe in the read aloud method, others just use it as a zero prep activity to count down the clock.

  6. Oral drills do not help you learn how to speak; they only demonstrate your ability to do so
    Just as reading aloud does not improve your pronunciation or reading skills, oral drills do little for your speaking fluency. We improve our speaking ability through increasing the quantity and quality of listening input (e.g. podcasts about your favorite topics), and then applying what we have heard in natural, contextualized conversations.

  7. You will be encouraged to move up to the next level even if you aren’t ready
    This is all about business. Schools make more money when you buy new books, take level tests and re-enroll in more classes.

  8. Your progress reports are meaningless
    Teachers hate writing progress reports. They are usually an exercise in creative writing, not meaningful feedback on your actual performance and progress in the language. Not knowing what to say (and not wanting to waste time on a task they don’t get paid for!), many teachers will just cut and paste canned comments, or come up with general, vague statements and overly technical descriptions of your grammar and pronunciation problems.

  9. You should be the one who chooses the material
    Despite being widely used, standardized textbooks are bad tools for a number of reasons. They build on the myth that schooling equals learning, as discussed in # 1 above. They lull students into a false sense of accomplishment, where completion of chapters is confused with actual internalization of the content. And with content written not to entertain but to avoid offending anyone, they are typically boring and sterile. Interest in the material is essential for effective language learning, so make sure to choose schools or teachers that allow you to choose materials that float your boat.

  10. It doesn’t take years to learn a foreign language well if you do it right
    If you like the language you are learning, believe you can learn it, and get as much listening and reading input as possible, you will learn the language well enough to communicate in a matter of 6 months to a year. Most students, however, end up paying tuition for years and years despite a lack of progress. Students blame themselves (backed up by the bogus comments found in their progress reports), not realizing that the problem lies not in them, but with their school’s materials and methodologies.
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, 04 2011 . 19:41 +
Scaldir [ + !]



http://www.l2mastery.com/blog/featured-articles/not-to-do-list

alexroz ([info]alexroz) [info]ru_learnenglish

          
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: The NOT to Do List - Common Missteps and Inefficient Habits to Avoid in Foreign Language Learning

 


  1. Do NOT spend more than 5% of your study time on grammar, translation, vocabulary lists or any other overt information about the language. Languages are "acquired," not learned. And acquisition by its very definition happens subconsciously over time given proper input. Which leads us to number 2.

  2. Do NOT spend time on materials that are too difficult or don't interest you. Motivation is one of the greatest keys to success in foreign language learning, and motivation's favorite fuel is interest. There is a wealth of material available today for free (podcasts, YouTube, blogs, online newspapers and magazines, etc.). Poke around online and find material that excites you.

  3. Do NOT study in long, infrequent sessions. After motivation, consistency is the most important factor in language learning. If you are strapped for time (and who isn't?), it is far better to study a little bit everyday than doing marathon study sessions a few times a month. For example, if you only have 2 hours free per week to commit to language studies, it is far better to do 20 minutes per day, 6 days a week than doing the whole 2 hours on one day.

  4. Do NOT worry about speaking too soon. Although oral fluency is certainly the goal of most language learners, it takes the brain some time to assimilate enough input to be able to produce meaningful output. Babies listen actively to the language around them for up to 2 years before uttering a single meaningful word. Adults can get to the output stage much earlier if they follow these 10 tips, but they should not force themselves (or let themselves be forced) to speak before they are ready. This is perhaps the single greatest problem with formal language instruction: students are expected to speak long before they are ready, creating a great deal of anxiety and diminishing the student's motivation and interest.

  5. Do NOT memorize vocabulary out of context. To have any chance of retaining or using new words, they must be heard or read (preferably the former) many, many times within a meaningful situation. "Narrow" listening and reading (i.e. going through a number of different articles on the same specific topic) is a good way to increase the repetition of key words in a meaningful and interesting way.

  6. Do NOT try to learn new words, alphabets, ideographic characters or spelling using "rote" memory. We have 5 senses at our disposal; use them! Integrate taste, touch, smell, sound and movement as much as possible. Use "imaginative memory" to visualize connections, stories, objects, etc. The crazier the story, the easier it will be to imprint in long term memory.

  7. Do NOT overly rely on the written word. Whenever possible, try to listen to a piece first before reading it. This trains you to rely on your ears first, and better follows the natural order of acquisition (remember: you learned to speak your first language long before you learned to read it!)

  8. Do NOT look up words before making at least one full pass through each reading or listening material (or each section for longer pieces.) Once you have gone through once or even twice, then go back and look up words you don't know. When you don't interrupt the "semantic flow," it's easier to get a feel for the big picture. And this prevents us word-nerds getting lost in unrelated vocabulary and new linguistic connections.

  9. Do NOT let the "affective filter" put a damper on your language learning. The affective filter is a fancy word for a simple and intuitive concept: your emotions and psychological state significantly affect your performance in a foreign language (or any skill-based act for that matter.) If you are bored, nervous, angry, hungry, tired, or preoccupied with the fight you had last night with your significant other, your ability to speak well in a foreign language (and acquire new language) will go down faster than the current stock market. On the other hand, I am sure you have noticed that a few brewskies can significantly improve your ability to converse in a foreign tongue. Why? Because booze (like meditation, exercise, and experience) helps lower inhibitions and boost social skills like verbal communication. If your teacher makes you feel nervous or stupid, fire them. If your language partner does not see the logic in your incorrect, but nevertheless intelligent errors, replace them. You will never make any real progress if you are afraid to speak and are not free to make all the wonderfully logical-albeit incorrect-utterances that define both infant and adult language acquisition.
  10. Do NOT forget to have some fun! Language learning takes time, but it needn't be difficult. If you approach language learning with a smile instead of a grimace, you too WILL succeed!
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- 03.03.2011

, 04 2011 . 19:32 +
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, 04 2011 . 18:36 +
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