ORDER OF WORDS. INVERSION
I. In Ukrainian we can freely change the position of words in the sentence.
II. In English the order of words is very important, because English words have hardly any inflections, and their relation to each other is shown by their place in the sentence and not by their form. The order of words in English is a fixed rule: the subject, the predicate, objects, adverbial modifiers.
III. The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inverted order, or inversion.
Inversion occurs in the following cases:
1. In questions which are not put to the subject.
~ Where can I find a more interesting book?
~ Are they still at home?
~ Who can answer my question?
2. In exclamatory sentences expressing wish in which the verb is in the Subjunctive Mood.
~ May you be happy and healthy.
3. When the sentence is introduced by THERE
~ There was no wind.
~ There have been many such incidents.
4. In the following constructions:
~ You can do it. Ц So can I.
~ I must leave now. Ц So must I.
~ I have never liked detective stories. Ц Neither have I.
5. In sentences introducing direct speech.
~ УThis is what I wantФ, said my friend.
~ УI think itТs all delightfulФ, murmured Emily.
Inversion may be the result of emphasis, when the author wishes to produce a certain stylistic effect. Here we must distinguish between the following cases.
6. The adverbial modifier of place or time opens the sentence (what is rare).in this case the subject is generally modified by a phrase or a clause:
~ Down below spread the town with its wide streets, beautiful buildings, bridges and green parks.
7. Adverbial modifiers expressed by such words as SO, THUS, THEN, HERE, NOW, THERE open the sentence. In this case the subject is expressed by a noun.
~ Thus began their friendship.
~ There she goes. (the subject is expressed by a pronoun).
8. An adverbial modifier with a negative meaning opens the sentence NEVER, IN VAIN, LITTLEЕ
~ Never have I been so happy as now.
9. The sentence starts with:
- The emphatic particle only
(not only Е but)
- the adverbs hardly, scarcely (correlated with the conjunction when)
- the adverb no sooner (correlated with the conjunction than)
- the conjunction nor
~ Only then did he understand it.
~ Hardly did I enter the room I noticed my friend waiting for me.
10. Adverbial modifier of manner expressed by adverbs open the sentence.
~ Loudly and cheerfully did the children greet him.
~ Calmly and attentively did they listen to his story.
11. SO followed by and adverbial modifier opens the sentence.
~ So loudly did he speak that everybody could hear him.
12. In vivid speech when the sentence begins with an adverb of direction: IN, OUT, AWAY, DOWN (if the subject is expressed by a noun):
~ Out came the chaise.
~ In rushed the others.
~ Off went the gun.
Down he rushed (the subject is expressed by a pronoun).
13. When an object or an adverbial modifier expressed by a word-group with NOT AЕ, MANY A Е opens the sentence:
~ Not a single mistake did he make.
~ Many a sleepless night did she spend.
14. When a predicate (sometimes preceded by SO or expressed by SUCH) opens the sentence (if the subject is expressed by a noun).
~ So cold was the night that they made a fire.
~ Bright and sunny was the morning when he started.
~ Such were the events of the day.
~ A gloomy day it was. (the subject is expressed by a pronoun).
15. In clauses of concession where the predicate is followed by the conjunction AS (if the subject is expressed by a noun).
~ Cold as was the weather, I plunged into it.
~ Hard as it was, we did it. (the subject is expressed by a pronoun)
16. In conditional clauses in the Subjunctive Mood when the conjunction IF is not used and not only with the verbs: HAD, WAS, WERE, SHOULD, COULD:
~ Had I more time, I should come to see you more often.
~ Were it not so late, I should go to the library.
17. Any word can be made emphatic by prefacing it with the words IT IS or IT WAS and using a clause after it.
~ It was he who did it.
~ It was here that I saw them for the first time.